Thursday, August 8, 2013

Unit Testing MVC4 Application With Dependency Injection

Introduction

In this article we will see how to Unit Test a MVC4 application with Dependency Injection. 

Steps

The MVC application we will be using is already explained to a previous article. As explained in the previous article, we have a "GuestBook" controller as explained below.

UnitTesting1.jpg

One of the issues with the current implementation of the "GuestbookController" is that it directly instantiates and uses the "GuestbookContext" object, which in turn accesses the database.

The solution to this is to decouple the controller from the GuestbookContext. Instead of accessing the "GuestBook" data directly from the DB, we will create a repository as below.

UnitTesting2.jpg

A concrete class that implements the "IGuestBookRepository" interface method is created as in the following:

UnitTesting3.jpg

Note that this concrete class has the direct reference to the "DBContext". Let's integrate this repository into the "GuestBook" controller.

Before making any changes to the "GuestBook" controller, remove the DBcontext code and create a local variable to hold the "IGuestBookRepository" interface instance. 

UnitTesting4.jpg

Rather than instantiating the GuestbookContext, we now store an instance of our repository within a field. The controller's default constructor populates the field with the default implementation of the repository. The second constructor allows us to provide our own instance of the repository rather than the default. This is what we'll use in our unit tests to pass in a fake implementation of the repository.

The actions in our controller now use the repository, instead of using the LINQ queries that will do the direct DB call.

UnitTesting5.jpg

All these changes are for removing the dependency with the database and we make the existing application work without any issues.

UnitTesting6.jpg

Create a simple fake repository as below that implements the "IGuestbookRepository" interface.

UnitTesting7.jpg

Let's start to create a new unit test project from an existing application.

UnitTesting8.jpg

Create a new test method that is using our Fake repository: 

UnitTesting9.jpg

Create a complex test method like the following one, it asserts that a list of "Guestbook" objects was passed to the view.

UnitTesting10.jpg

Both tests make use of the fake repository "B". By passing it to the controller's constructor, we ensure that the controller uses our fake set of in-memory data rather than connecting to the real database.

UnitTesting11.jpg

As we saw in the Test Explorer, both tests are run successfully, independent of the database.

Summary

In this article we saw basic unit testing of MVC4 application. Dependency Injection was used in the controller to remove the database dependency. For more information about Dependency Injection, please check the following link.

http://martinfowler.com/articles/injection.html 

Monday, August 5, 2013

Working With MVC4 Application

Introduction

In this article we will create a simple "GuestBook" application using MVC4 and Entity Framework.

Steps
First install the "EntityFramework.SqlServerCompact" NuGet package in your application.

MVC1.jpg

Create a simple Model class for our application:

MVC2.jpg

After this package installation, we need to create a Database context class that helps to interact with a database using our GuestBook Model.

MVC3.jpg

The class inherits from the DbContext base class (that resides in the System.Data.Entity namespace), and it begins by declaring a parameterless constructor that uses constructor chaining to pass the name of the database to the base class.

We pass the string "Guestbook" to the base constructor. If we don't do this then the Entity Framework will default to using the full type-name of the context class as the name of the database, and will instead look for a file called "Guestbook.Models.GuestbookContext.sdf".

In the "App_Data" folder we can see the "GuestBook.sdf" file.

MVC4.jpg

We will create a controller that we use in GuestbookContext.

MVC5.jpg

We created two action methods, "index" retrieves the data from the Database and "create" is used to post data to the database.

We also created two simple views to render the Action Results.

MVC6.jpg

Index view to show the "GuestBook" result from the database.

MVC7.jpg

Let's see the results in a browser. The Guest Book create page looks like the following image, we simply enter the data and save that to the local database.

MVC8.jpg

The result page look likes the following image:

MVC9.jpg

That's it. But how is the data is stored in the database? Let's do some analysis. Install the "Glimpse" tool to begin analysis of the MVC application. Check the following link for more information about it.

http://www.hanselman.com/blog/NuGetPackageOfTheWeek5DebuggingASPNETMVCApplicationsWithGlimpse.aspx

As you can see, there's no connection string in Web.config, instead we will see the following data provider.

MVC10.jpg

We check the Glimpse and we will get the database details as below.

MVC11.jpg

Summary

In this article we saw "Guest Book" application creation in MVC4, used the Entity Framework to work with the database and used "Glimpse" to understand the Entity Framework local database.